...Goals Index............Home.............Standards Index

will know and apply concepts that explain how living things function, adapt and change. 12A
will observe the movement, growth and changes in plants and animals. 12a1
will identify living and non-living things by using the five senses. 12a1
will identify the parts of growing plants as they develop. 12a1
will recognize changes in life cycle of living organisms. 12a1
will identify that most living things need water, food, light and air. 12a1
will classify objects as living or non-living. 12a1
will relate observations of the butterfly's life cycle to student's own growth and change. 12a1
will identify the structures of physical characteristics of living things and explain their functions (e.g., wings for flying, fins for swimming; roots for support and obtaining water). 12a2
will observe, measure and record changes in living things (e.g., growth and development, variations within species). 12a2
will identify the structures of living things, including their systems and explain their functions (e.g., roots absorb water, circulatory system to move materials). 12a2
will construct and explain models of habitats, food chains, and food webs. 12a2
will describe environmental barriers to the migration of animals. 12a2
will understand that plants and animals closely resemble their parents and that some characteristics are inherited from the parents and others result from interaction with the environment. 12a2
will compare and sequence changes in plant and animal life cycles. 12a2
will identify and classify variations in structures of living things including their systems and explain their functions (e.g., skeletons, teeth, plant needles, leaves). 12a2
will associate the behaviors of living organisms to external and internal influences (e.g., hunger, climate, seasons). 12a2
will describe the different characteristics of plants and animals that help them to survive in different niches and environments. 12a2
will identify the structures of living organisms and explain their function. 12a2
will trace and describe the pathways of the sun's energy through producers, consumers and decomposers using food webs and pyramids. 12a2
will explore the extinction of a species due to environmental conditions. 12a2
will explain how the different characteristics of plants and animals help them to survive in different riches and environments including adaptations, natural selection, and extinction. 12a2
will compare variations of plant growth and reproduction. 12a2
will compare the similarities of internal features of organisms that can be used to infer relatedness. 12a3
will demonstrate changes in populations of organisms due to limiting environmental factors (e.g., food supply, predators, disease, habitat). 12a3
will compare growth patterns in different plants (e.g., mosses, ferns, perennials, biennials, woody plants, herbaceous plants). 12a3
will construct models of plant and animal cells that show the basic parts (e.g., cytoplasm, cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, chloroplasts). 12a3
will explain how abiotic and biotic factors affect the interdependence among organisms. 12a3
will predict the trends of interdependent populations if one of the limiting factors is changed. 12a3
will analyze the differences in the growth, development and reproduction of flowering and non-flowering plants. 12a3
will relate how an organism's behavior response is a combination of heredity and environment. 12a3
will analyze how changes in the environment have led to reproductive adaptations through natural selection. 12a3
will evaluate how the different adaptations and life cycles of plants and animals help them to survivie in different niches and environments (e.g., inherited and acquired adaptations). 12a3
will construct simple keys to differentiate among living things with similar characteristics. 12a3
will compare the level of organization of cells, tissues and organs in living things. 12a3
will explain how the skeletal, muscular and integumentary systems work together in the human body. 12a3
will identify and describe disease causing organisms and the diseases they cause such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi. 12a3
will compare the variations in cells, tissues, and organs of the circulatory, respiratory and reproductive systems of different organisms. 12a3
will explain how the circulatory, respiratory and reproductive systems work together in the human body. 12a3
will identify and explain the structures and functions of cell organelles. 12a3
will trace matter and energy flow in a food web as it goes from sunlight to producers to consumers, design an environment in which the chemical and energy needs for the growth, reproduction and development of plants are met. 12a3
will group unknown organisms based on observable characteristics (e.g., use dichotomous keys). 12a3
will examine how patterns of human development are similar to other vertebrates. 12a3
will demonstrate the basic principles of genetics to include: Mendel's laws, DNA, monohybrid crosses, production of sperm and egg, production of body cells, genes, chromosomes, and inherited traits. 12a3
will analyze how behaviors of organisms lead to species continuity (e.g., reproductive/mating behaviors, seed dispersal). 12a3
will demonstrate how living cells obtain the essentials of life through chemical reactions of transpiration, respiration and photosynthesis. 12a3
will identify and compare the structure and function of cell, tissues and systems of different organisms. 12a4
will identify the organisms and the chemical processes involved in the decay of materials. 12a4
will explain how excretory, digestive systems work together in the human body. 12a4
will mathematically illustrate changes in populations of organisms. 12a4
will illustrate neiosis and mitosis and relate to chromosome number and production of sperm, egg and body cells. 12a4
will analyze and explain the principles of genetics (e.g., monohybrid and dihybrid crosses, mutations, genotypes, phenotypes, X and Y chromosomes, multiple alleles, DNA, probability, diversity). 12a4
will explore the discovery of DNA and its structure by constructing a model to demonstrate the nucleotide bonding and the double helix structure. 12a4
will identify mechanisms for the movement of materials into and out of cells (e.g., active and passive transport, endo- and exocytosis). 12a4
will compare the variations in cells, tissues and organs of different organisms (e.g., endocrine, nervous, digestion and immune systems). 12a4
will identify and explain the structures and funcitons of cell organelles (e.g., Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, lysosomes, vacuoles). 12a4
will relate the role of natural selection to the development, diversity and or extinction of a species. 12a4
will construct and manipulate models which show variations in living things (e.g., nervous, endocrine, immune systems). 12a4
will compare the embryonic development of invertebrate and vertebrate animals (e.g., ontogeny and phylogeny, diversity, taxonomy). 12a4
will review principles of genetics (e.g., number of chromosomes, mutations, crossover, Punnett squares, linkage). 12a4
will relate the role of DNA analysis to genetic disorders, forensic science, molecular genetics, and biotechnology (e.g., protein synthesis, heredity, cell division, cellular functions). 12a4
will investigate the molecules of life and their function in the living systems. 12a5
will present an overview of the taxonomy and systematics of living organisms comparing DNA as the modern basis of classification to older methods based on morphology. 12a5
will discuss the regulatory process in controlling gene function. 12a5
will recognize that differentiation is regulated through the expression of different genes. 12a5
will identify the function of the RNAs, messenger, transfer and ribosomal in the transcription and translation process of protein formation. 12a5
will identify the function of DNA in replication and transfer of the genetic code. 12a5
will explore basic phenotypic & genotypic genetics beyond Mendel including incomplete dominance, gene interaction, codominance, multi-alleles, crossing over, genetic recombination; & influences of environment, development, sex & age. 12a5
will identify Mendel's 1st Law and 2nd Law of Genetics and apply these laws to predict phenotypic and genotypic ratios from mono and dihybrid crosses. 12a5
will evaluate the advantages of asexual and sexual reproduction. 12a5
will investigate and discuss the importance of replication and mutation in the diversity of life. 12a5
will identify the stages of mitotic and meiotic eukaryotic cell division and explain significance of the stages. 12a5
will recognize and describe the phases of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell cycles. 12a5
will research the diverstiy/uniqueness of cell types (compare differences in prokaryotic/eukaryotic, plant/animal cells; explore nerve cell, blood cells, gametes, etc.). 12a5
will analyze the chemistry and structure of the cell membrane as it relates to import and export of molecules necessary for life, exploring osmosis, diffusion, active and passive transport and dialysis. 12a5
will identify the structure, functions, and interactions of eukaryotic cell organelles and their products. 12a5
will analyze gene expression and embryonic development. 12a5
will research genetic engineering through current DNA technology and how such engineering impacts social and ethical issues (e.g., bacterial production of human insulin, DNA, cloning, fingerprinting, etc.) 12a5
will review basic genetics including incomplete dominance, gene interactions, codominance, multiple alleles, crossing over, genetic recombinations, environmental influences, development, sex and age. 12a5
will describe the relationship of the excretory system to other organs and systems. 12a5
will investigate the composition of blood and compatibility of blood types. 12a5
will illustrate the structure of the circulatory and lymphatic systems and the function of blood to the role of transportation, cellular support and defense. 12a5
will relate the male and female reproductive systems to human growth and development. 12a5
will investigate the male and female reproductive systems including identification of structures and their functions. 12a5
will explore the endocrine system emphasizing glands, hormonal control and problems in hormone production. 12a5
will discuss the specific role of enzymes and hormones to bodily functions. 12a5
will apply the knowledge of the structure of the ear and eye to their function/dysfunction in relationship to environmental perception. 12a5
will illustrate the nerves and functions of the peripheral nervous system including the autonomic portion. 12a5
will locate, identify and discuss the structure and function of the parts of the central nervous system. 12a5
will trace and describe a nervous impulse including a discussion of the sodium-potassium pump. 12a5
will categorize, by structure and function, the various types of human tissue (e.g., muscle, epithelial, connective, nervous). 12a5
will identify the role of DNA in transcription and relate to types of RNA and protein synthesis. 12a5
will demonstrate knowledge of direcitonal terminology necessary for anatomical location such as proximal, dorsal, medial, lateral, visceral, superficial and deep. 12a5

will know and apply the concepts, principles and processes of technological design. 12B
will observe models of plants and animals in different environments (e.g., terrariums, aquariums, animals and plants in a forest, pond, field). 12b1
will identify that systems are made of parts that interact with one another. 12b1
will sequence pictures of events to illustrate the changes in the life cycle of plants and animals. 12b1
will identify that plants and animals have different structures. 12b1
will observe that changes can occur gradually, repetitively, or randomly within the environment. 12b1
will identify important uses of air. 12b1
will observe and compare simple models of different kinds of habitats, including a forest and a stream. 12b1
will observe and describe relationships among organisms in an ecosystem (e.g., sequencing food chains, behavior, adaptations, factors that effect populations, predator-prey relationships). 12b2
will compare physical characteristics and behaviors of living organisms and explain how they are adapted to a specific environment (e.g., beaks and feet in birds, seed dispersal, camouflage, different types of flowers). 12b2
will identify human uses of plants and animals (e.g., food sources, medicines). 12b2
will compare and contrast changes that occur in an object or a system to its original state. 12b3
will identify and describe microscopic organisms and foreign substances in the environment and their harmful effects (e.g., microorganisms, mutagens, carcinogens). 12b4
will design an environment that demonstrates the interdependence of plants and animals (e.g., energy and chemical cycles, adaptations of structures and behaviors). 12b4
will review foundational chemical concepts including atomic structure, bonding, chemical reactions, water and pH as they relate to living systems. 12b5
will investigate and discuss responses of organisms to internal and environmental stimuli. 12b5
will investigate and discuss that behavioral response is a set of actions determined in part by heredity and in part from experience. 12b5
will discuss evidence of evolution and natural selection, including examples such as peppered moth, fossil records, biogeography, molecular biology and comparative anatomy. 12b5
will evaluate the effects of large-scale use of fungicides and pesticides on the diversity of organisms. 12b5
will compare and describe the properties of sound waves and how they affect organisms (e.g., sound pollution, sonagraphy, echolocation and animal vocalization). 12b5
will investigate and discuss that the number of organisms any environment can support depends on the resources available. 12b5
will investigate and discuss ecology as the interaction of living organisms and their nonliving environment. 12b5
will investigate and discuss that extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and the adaptive characteristics of a species are insufficient to allow its survival. 12b5
will relate how bone tissue is important to the development of the human skeleton. 12b5
will relate the structure of the integumetary system to its function as a sensory organ, environmental barrier and temperature regulator. 12b5

will know and apply concepts that describe properties of matter and energy and the interactions between them. 12C
will observe and compare differences in earth materials. 12c1
will describe, compare, sort, and group objects in terms of what they are made of (day, cloth, paper, metal, etc.) and their physical properties of size, shape, color, weight or texture. 12c1
will demonstrate that vibrations produce sounds. 12c1
will observe and record shadows at different times of the day. 12c1
will classify objects as magnetic or non-magnetic. 12c1
will predict and investigate the buoyancy of objects in water. 12c1
will recognize that water can be a solid or a liquid, and can change from one form to another. 12c1
will investigate and compare the properties of soil (e.g., sand, clay, humus). 12c1
will recognize that sound can change in pitch and volume. 12c1
will recognize that some materials and colors conduct heat better than others. 12c1
will demonstrate that a magnet can attract or repel objects. 12c1
will demonstrate that solids, liquids and gases take up space. 12c1
will identify materials as a solid, a liquid or a gas and recognize that matter can change from one state to another. 12c1
will relate how the color of an object is based upon the absorption or relection of light. 12c2
will investigate the absorption, reflection and refraction of light by objects. 12c2
will investigate the dissolving of solids in liquids. 12c2
will relate changes in states of matter to changes in temperature. 12c2
will identify physical and chemical properties. 12c2
will relate the buoyancy of an object ot its density. 12c2
will understand that materials including air mass, take up space and are made of parts that are too small to be seen without magnification. 12c2
will examine simple chemical changes (e.g., tarnishing, rusting, burning). 12c2
will investigate and compare the dissolving of different solids in a given liquid. 12c2
will investigate how properties can be used to identify substances. 12c2
will investigate the change in the length, tension, or thickness of the vibrating object on the frequency of vibration (e.g., string, wire, rubber band). 12c2
will explore that sounds are produced vibrating objects and columns of air and explore the relationship between frequency and pitch of sound. 12c2
will investigate static electricty and conductors/nonconductors of electricity. 12c2
will examine types and properties of waves (e.g., transverse, longitudinal, frequency, wavelengths). 12c2
will identify different forms of energy and describe energy transformations that occur between them (e.g., electrical to heat, light to mechanical). 12c2
will investigate the density of liquids. 12c2
will investigate variables that affect the rate of evaporation of a liquid. 12c2
will identify various changes in states of matter to heat loss or gain. 12c2
will identify and explain common energy conversions in cycles of matter including photosynthesis and carbon dioxide cycle. 12c2
will investigate the properties of an electromagnet. 12c2
will use SI (metric) measurement units of volts, amps and watts as they apply to electricity. 12c2
will analyze diagrams of electrical circuits. 12c2
will identify substances by their relative densities (e.g., floating; sinking). 12c2
will recognize that elements are composed of only one type of matter. 12c2
will explain that the mass of a material is conserved whether it is together, in parts, or in a different state. 12c2
will describe the interactions of various cycles that provide energy through decomposition, photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration in the food web; nitrogen cycle. 12c3
will diagram simple parallel and series circuits (e.g., bulbs, battery, wires, switch). 12c3
will describe the flow of heat between objects (e.g., hot air rises, absorption and release of heat by metals). 12c3
will explain absorption and reflection of light by different objects of various colors and textures (e.g., transparent, translucent, opaque, different colors). 12c3
will identify factors affecting reflection and refraction (e.g., nature of surfaces, color, density of medium). 12c3
will describe properties of matter (e.g., inertia, specific heat, malleability, melting point, density). 12c3
will use the periodic table to identify elements as solids, liquids and gases, metals or nonmetals. 12c3
will identify the symbols of elements 12c3
will use indicators to identify substances as acidic, basic or neutral. 12c3
will investigate the formation and separation of simple mixtures. 12c3
will investigate the composition of matter concluding that matter is composed of tiny particles and that the particles are the same for the same type of matter. 12c3
will classify and investigate properties and processes (changes) as either physical or chemical. 12c3
will identify the influence that a variation in scale will have on the way an object or system works. 12c3
will use pictures to show cyclical processes in nature (e.g., water cycle, nitrogen cycle, and carbon cycle). 12c3
will explain conservation of matter and energy qualitatively and recognize that energy can be changed from one form to another. 12c3
will identify characteristics of AC and DC circuits. 12c3
will define characteristics of light and sound waves and describe how sound is perceived by the ear and light is perceived by the eye. 12c3
will trace the energy flow during phase changes. 12c3
will trace the development of the model of the atom (e.g., Crookes, Thompson, Becquerel, Rutherford, and Bohr). 12c3
will determine the number of protons, neutrons and electrons and use information to draw a Bohr model of the atom. 12c3
will assign an element to its chemical family on the periodic table and note similarities in outer energy level electrons within each family. 12c3
will evaluate gaseous systems noting the variation in diffusion rates and examine the expansion of gases at elevated temperatures. 12c3
will conduct and classify chemical reactions by reaction type; energy type; and write word equations for the chemical reactions. 12c3
will identify chemical reaction factors that might affect the reaction rates including catalysts, temperature changes, light energies and particle size. 12c3
will identify types of energy and their sources (e.g., petroleum refinements, windmills, geothermal). 12c3
will interpret and illustrate changes in waves as they pass through various mediums (e.g., sound through water and metal, light through varying thickness of glass). 12c3
will apply the conservation of energy theory to energy transformation (e.g., electrical/heat, heat/mechanical). 12c3
will differentiate among elements, compounds, homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures. 12c3
will describe the behavior of individual particles and verify the conservation of matter (e.g., melting and freezing of pure substances). 12c3
will investigate the relationship between the density of an object, its mass, and its volume. 12c4
will describe the characterisitics of radioactivity substances including alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays; the half-life of a radioactive isotope; a chain reaction; and differentiate between fission and fusion. 12c4
will trace the transfer of matter and energy in the chemical/molecular processes of photosynthesis, respiration and fermentation. 12c4
will hypothesize and experiment when different components are substituted in an electrical circuit; define and solve electrical problems involving potential difference. Ohm's Law and power. 12c4
will relate absorption and dissipation of heat to the composition of a material. 12c4
will identify, describe and differentiate various forms of energy and energy transformations. 12c4
will experimentally determine the products of chemical reactions; write balanced chemical equations; classify type of reaction; and describe energy changes. 12c4
will identify the various types of chemical bonds and the resulting compounds that are formed (e.g., ionic, nonpolar covalent, polar covalent). 12c4
will write formulas and name compounds given oxidation numbers of monatomic and polyatomic ions. 12c4
will investigate physical states of matter including descriptions of the behavior of atoms and molecules in terms of the Kinetic Molecular Theory. 12c4
will qualitatively and quantitatively describe the conservation of energy (e.g., thermal, chemical, mechanical). 12c4
will qualitatively explain the relationship between electricity and magnetism and describe how electrical components of a circuit function. 12c4
will summarize the relationship between frequency and speed (e.g., Doppler effect). 12c4
will compare and contrast the characteristics and uses of waves in various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum; calculate the frequency of a particular wavelength. 12c4
will investigate and measure changes in thermal energy in physical and chemical changes. 12c4
will investigate the relationships among temperature, pressure and volume in gases and interpret graphs that depict these relationships (e.g., Charles' Law, Boyle's Law, Gay Lussac's Law). 12c4
will differentiate between physical, chemical and nuclear changes and reactions. 12c4
will investigate the properties of solutions including density, conductivity, solubility, concentration, pH and colligative properties. 12c4
will trace matter and energy flow through the respiration processes of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and electron transport system (e.g., ATP, carbon, oxygen, water). 12c4
will construct concept maps showing energy flow and cycles of matter between chemical and biological systems including photosynthesis, stored chemical energy, decomposition, carbon and nitrogen cycles. 12c4
will explore capture and release of energy as demonstrated by photosynthesis, cellular respiration, fermentation, and the role of coenzymes and vitamins. 12c5
will discuss and categorize chemical hazards and how they impact life. (e.g., flammable, reactive, poisons, corrosive). 12c5
will explore material transport in and out of cells (e.g., diffusion and osmosis). 12c5
will trace matter and energy transfers occurring during photosynthesis, cell respiration, and fermentation. 12c5
will identify four types of electron clouds (s, p, d, f) and describe the quantum number (n, l, m, s) for electrons. 12c5
will review Bohr model of the atom and calculation of subatomic particles - protons, neutrons, and electrons. 12c5
will review the classification of matter using the periodic table; use the kinetic molecular theory to explain physical states of matter; physical and chemical properties; and physical and chemical changes. 12c5
will construct electrolytic cells to observe the reduction of ions into free metals and write the half reactions that occur. 12c5
will compare and contrast the properties of strong and weak acids and bases. 12c5
will make connections between resource conservation and the Law of Conservation of Matter. 12c5
will compare atomic and ionic electronic structures. 12c5
will list the biological effects of radiation and the units used to measure radiation. 12c5
will write balanced nuclear equations and make predictions using half-life values. 12c5
will evaluate the factors driving chemical reactions including enthalpy and entropy and their interrelationship. 12c5
will construct electrolytic cells, write and balance the half-cell reactions and calculate cell voltage. 12c5
will define oxidation and reduction in terms of electron transfer within reactions. 12c5
will name and define acids and bases using Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis definitions. 12c5
will apply LeChatelier's principle to explain the effect of changes in concentration, pressure, volume, and temperature on an equilibrium system. 12c5
will use molar mass to calculate the molarity of solutions, percentage composition, empirical formulas and formulas of hydrates. 12c5
will perform calculations using the combined and ideal gas laws. 12c5
will use the Avogadro constant to define the mole and to calculate molecular and molar mass as well as a molar volume. 12c5
will write electron dot structures for representative elements. 12c5
will write electron configurations and associate electron configuration of elements with element location on periodic table. 12c5
will explain practical applications of nuclear technology (e.g., radioactive dating, radioisotopes in medicine). 12c5
will compare and contrast the use of petroleum as either a source of energy or as a fundamental ingredient of synthetic materials. 12c5
will demonstrate the formation of polymers from smaller molecules. 12c5
will relate the properties of organic compounds to their functional groups (e.g., alcohol and esters). 12c5
will predict reactions of metals with aqueous solutions using the Metal Activity Series. 12c5
will investigate and apply the reflective, refractive and diffractive properties of waves to study mechanical and electromagnetic waves. 12c5
will define specific heat capacity; use the specific heat equation to calculate heat gained or lost during phase changes and heat lost when objects cool. 12c5
will calculate the pressure of a solid object on a surface and the pressure exerted by a fluid at a given depth; relate the measure of pressure in kPapressure in N/m2. 12c5
will identify and apply the properties of solids, liquids and gases to explain their behavior at different pressures and temperatures. 12c5
will qualitively and quantitively analyze fluid systems (e.g., pressure, work, rate, resistance, energy, power, force transformations). 12c5
will construct and analyze electrical circuits and calculate Ohm's law problems for series, parallel and complex circuits including voltage drops; calculate power and energy in electrical systems. 12c5
will recognize the basic properties of electrical charge, charging by conduction and induction, and differentiate between conductors and insulators; calculate electrical force using Coulomb's law. 12c5
will distinguish between temperature and heat; relate these to kinetic energy and internal energy of matter; apply the principle of conservation of energy to calculate changes in potential, kinetic and internal energy. 12c5
will define the general properties of an idea gas; apply the Ideal Gas Law to predict the properties of an ideal gas under different conditions. 12c5

will know and apply concepts that describe force and motion and the principles that explain them.
will explore the different ways objects can be moved (e.g., straight, circular, fast, slow). 12d1
will describe the changes in the motion of objects (e.g., slowing, speeding up, curving) 12d1
will depict movement of living things in air, water and on land. (e.g., birds flying, fish swimming, worms burrowing in soil). 12d1
will compare the effects of force on the motion of an object. 12d1
will recognize that the greater a force is exerted on an object, the greater the change of its motion will be. 12d2 will recognize that speed, distance, and time are interrelated. 12d2
will recognize that it takes work to move objects over a distance. 12d2
will predict and investigate the motion of an object if the applied force is changed. 12d2
will relate motion of an object to its frame of reference. 12d2
will describe how the variables of gravity and friction affect the motion of objects. 12d2
will explain motion in terms of frames of reference and analyze graphs depicting motion and predicted future motion. 12d3
will examine simple machines and the force involved; apply the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on motion of objects. 12d3
will interpret the relationship of mass to gravitational force (e.g., larger the mass the larger the gravitational force, the closer the objects the stronger the force). 12d3
will analyze motion graphically and use vectors to represent direction of motion. 12d3
will explain the effect of gravity on falling objects (e.g., g-m/s2, object dropped on earth and on moon. 12d3
will illustrate quantitatively mechanical advantage of simple machines. 12d3
will quantitatively represent work, power, pressure (e.g., W=fd, P=W/t, pressure=force/area). 12d3
will describe Newton's Laws of Motion; identify examples; illustrate qualitatively and quantitatively drawing vector quantities. 12d3
will perform experiments with simple machines to demonstrate the relationship between forces and distance; use vectors to represent motion. 12d3
will investigate 5 types of waves & their properties including interference, diffraction, resonance; difference & similarities between transverse & longitudinal waves; wave equation to determine the relationships among speed, wavelength & frequency. 12d4
will experiment with a pendulum to determine which variables (amplitude, mass, length) will affect the motion of the pendulum. 12d4
will review foundational concepts of kinematics (e.g., speed-distance-time relationships) and dynamics (e.g., Newton's Laws, simple machines). 12d4
will relate the forces between charged objects to the charge on the objects and the distance between them. 12d4
will determine the effect of different forces on vibrating systems (e.g., pendulums, springs) 12d4
will describe and quantify how machines can provide mechanical advantages. 12d4
will apply Newton's Laws of Motion to depict the relationship among rate, force, momentum and time using kinematics graph and mathematical models. 12d4
will relate the characteristics and behavior of mechanical waves to earth processes (e.g., explain the formation of water waves as a function of wind velocity, durations, and fetch). 12d4
will demonstrate qualitative and quantitative understanding of pressure in various systems (e.g., water pipes, circuits, blood vessels). 12d4
will investigate the nature of light in relation to energy transformation in photosynthesis. 12d5
will examine the motion of a fluid; apply Bernoulli's equation to solve fluid problems; recognize the effects of Bernoulli's principle on fluid motion. 12d5
will relate the pressure exerted by a fluid to its depth; calculate the pressure exerted by a fluid. 12d5
will apply the concepts of potential and kinetic energy to final velocity of an object-independent of path; evaluate the conservation of energy and momentum in simple harmonic motion. 12d5
will measure and draw electrical and magnetic fields; describe applications of electrical and magnetic fields. 12d5
will relate the wavelength, velocity and frequency of waves with the equation velocity=frequency x wavelength and use it to perform calculations. 12d5
will investigate and apply the reflective, refractive and diffractive properties of waves to study mechanical and electromagnetic waves. 12d5

will know and apply concepts that describe the features and processes of the Earth and its resources. 12E
will observe that seasonal changes occur gradually and repetitively as a function of the earth's rotation. 12e1
will observe, identify and record changes in weather and effects on living organisms. 12e1
will explain how the rotation of the Earth on its axis causes day and night. 12e1
will compare seasonal changes. 12e1
will observe and describe different types of precipitation 12e1
will identify the effects of wind movement. 12e1
will examine changes in the earth's surface (e.g., weathering, erosion). 12e1
will describe the layers of the Earth and their various features. 12e2
will explain how igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are formed. 12e2
will identify properties of minerals and recognize that rocks are composed of different minerals. 12e2
will describe how volcanoes and earthquakes change the Earth. 12e2
will explore the eroding of different materials by water and wind (e.g., sand, mud pile and rocks). 12e2
will identify fossils as a record of time (e.g., what organisms once lived on Earth, where they lived). 12e2
will compare ocean water and fresh water. 12e2
will explain the relationship between the rate of cooling and crystal size of igneous rocks. 12e2
will describe the rock cycle. 12e2
will interpret a weather chart or map. 12e2
will investigate the cause and effects of volcanoes, earthquakes and landslides. 12e2
will compare and explain the relative time differences to erode materials (e.g., a sand pile, mud pile, rock pile). 12e2
will identify that the Earth is made of plates (plate tectonics). 12e2
will explore and explain how fossils and geologic features can be used to determine the relative age of rocks and rock layers. 12e2
will identify land features and elevations on a topographical map. 12e2
will compare and explain the different rates of weathering, erosion and deposition in certain materials. 12e2
will identify and describe natural landforms, how they change and impact weather and climate. 12e2
will describe the layers of the earth and their various features. 12e2
will compare the Earth's tilt and revolution to the seasonal changes. 12e3
will relate global patterns of atmospheric movement on local weatther and the impact of oceans on weather and climate. 12e3
will relate rock formations to the types of fossil fuels. 12e3
will construct and interpret rock layer models through stratigraphic interpretation. 12e3
will compare and contrast periods of geologic time using rocks and rock layers. 12e3
will track major atmospheric events. 12e3
will describe and demonstrate the forces and results of plant tectonics. 12e3
will describe changes in the rock record due to geologic and physical events over time. (e.g., rock cyle as it relate to plate tectonics). 12e3
will identify the principle forces of plate tectonics and related geological events.12e3
will estimate the absolute age of materials using existing radio isotropic data. 12e4
will determine the relative age of materials using time-stratigraphic and bio-stratigraphic relationships. 12e4
will examine how scientists use seismographic evidence in determining structure and composition of the Earth's interior. 12e4
will use models to describe interactive cycles such as the water, the nitrogen and the carbon dioxide cycles. 12e4
will analyze and describe common rock samples using grain size and shape, and mineral composition. 12e4
will employ a variety of tests to identify common rock-forming minerals. 12e4
will compare and analyze the characteristics of oceans, including their lateral and vertical motions. 12e4
will demonstrate the relationships of temperature, air pressure, wind speed, wind direction and humidity as elements of weather. 12e4
will investigate formation and destruction of landforms. 12e4
will summarize and discuss the evidentiary basis for the Theory of Plate Tectonics. 12e4
will relate changes in the Earth's surface to the motion of lithosphere plates. 12e4
will recognize that fossil records provide a scientific explanation for variation in the species and common ancestors. 12e4
will compare and contrast morphological features of fossils to present-day organisms. 12e4
will investigate and compare theories of the source of the Earth's magnetic field and relate Earth's electromagnetic field to the dynamics of the magnetosphere. 12e4
will observe and describe the effects of water on the earth's surface (e.g., changes in particle size, slope, velocity). 12e4
will investigate effects of geological events on weather and climate (e.g., ocean currents). 12e4
will relate the cause of tides to their height and frequency. 12e4
will use atopographic maps and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to investigate biological systems and patterns (e.g., land use). 12e5
will describe landfills and sewage treatment facilities and how they work. 12e5
will explain common problems related to conservation, use, supply and quality of water. 12e5
will investigate and explain, heat transfer in the atmosphere and its relationship to meteorological processes (e.g, pressure, winds, evaporation, condensation, and precipitation). 12e5
will identify and describe properties of our oceans (e.g., composition, physical features of the ocean floor, and life within the oceans). 12e5
will understand the cause and effect relationships of degradational and tectonic forces with respect to the dynamic earth and its surface (e.g., volcanoes, earthquakes). 12e5
will identify and describe tectonic forces relating to internal energy production and convection currents. 12e5
will list, identify, and sequence eras, epochs and periods in relation to earth history and geologic development. 12e5
will identify components of the solid earth and the natural processes relating to its development. 12e5

will know and apply concepts that explain the composition and structure of the universe and Earth's place in it. 12F
will observe and discuss the importance of objects in the day and night sky. 12f1
will use a model to compare land and water features on the Earth 12f1
will match a fossil or a picture of a fossil, with a picture of its original organism (e.g., dinosaur bones, shell, fern). 12f1
will describe how fossils are formed. 12f1
will understand that the moon has phases. 12f1
will group or order a given set of objects according to an established scheme (e.g., celestial objects, patterns of motion, constellations). 12f2 will describe the similarities and differences among the planets. 12f2
will recognize the relative movement of the Sun and Moon in relationship to the Earth's position. 12f2
will describe and explain the planets orbital paths. 12f2
will describe the orbits of the Sun and Moon. 12f2
will identify the sun as a star. 12f2
will locate and identify patterns of stars and their seasonal changes. 12f2
will recognize the changes involved in the life cycle of a star. 12f3
will describe and compare the physical characteristics of celestial objects. 12f3
will compare the characteristics of the members of our solar system. 12f3
will recognize the phases of the Moon. 12f3
will investigate models of Earth-Moon-Sun relationships (e.g., gravity, time, tides). 12f3
will examine the relationships among air masses, oceans, weather, convection currents and the sun's energy. 12f3
will depict and relate causes of tides, surfs and currents. 12f3
will compare and contrast the different types of galaxies (e.g., shape, size components). 12f3
will compare and contrast the orbits of planets and comets. 12f3
will diagram the motions of the Sun, Moon and Earth and explain the phenomena associated with these motions (e.g., glacial periods, eclipses, tides, meteor showers). 12f3
will research and describe the life cycles of various stellar types. 12f4
will interpret apparent motion of constellations and their relationship to the rotation of the earth. 12f4
will compare and contrast the characterisitics of Earth and the other planets relative to their distance from the Sun. 12f4
will investigate the solar system including origin theories, comparing and contrasting the planets, planetary motions, and other celestial bodies. 12f5
will apply Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation to the motion of celestial objects. 12f5
will describe Eistein's special theory of relativity and its basic development through assumptions and logical consequences. 12f5
will research and evaluate evidence of the Big Bang model of the universe. 12f5
will apply Newton's law of Universal Gravitation to derive relationships to calculate acceleration of gravity on other planets and orbital velocities. 12f5